Problem Solving

Community policing emphasizes proactive problem solving in a systematic and routine fashion. Rather than responding to crime only after it occurs, community policing encourages agencies to proactively develop solutions to the immediate underlying conditions contributing to public safety problems. Problem solving must be infused into all police operations and guide decision-making efforts. Agencies are encouraged to think innovatively about their responses and view making arrests as only one of a wide array of potential responses. A major conceptual vehicle for helping officers to think about problem solving in a structured and disciplined way is the scanning, analysis, response, and assessment (SARA) model.

Rank and File: Reflections on Emerging Issues in Law Enforcement
In August 2017, 40 rank-and-file officers met for a roundtable to discuss their roles in implementing their agencies' community policing policies and operations
Risk Management in Law Enforcement: Discussions on Identifying and Mitigating Risk for Officers, Departments, and the Public
In the course of executing their duties, law enforcement agencies are vulnerable to costly lawsuits by officers and community members for claims of misconduct, harm, or violation of rights - lawsuits that can undermine not only the financial security of the agencies but also the well-being of the officers and the public they serve
Rescue, Response, and Resilience: A Critical Incident Review of the Orlando Public Safety Response to the Attack on the Pulse Nightclub
This Police Foundation report on the Pulse nightclub shooting attack in June 2016 details multiple aspects of the attack and response, including leadership, collaboration, tactics, equipment, training, emergency medical care, officer safety, public information, and community relationships.
Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers in 60 Small Steps
Covers the basics of problem-oriented policing and shows how many new concepts developed to analyze crime patterns can sharpen understanding of crime and disorder problems
Assessing Responses to Problems: An Introductory Guide for Police-Problem Solvers
Summarizes knowledge about information gathering and analysis techniques
Police Enforcement Strategies to Prevent Crime in Hot Spot Areas
Summarizes the findings from all rigorous academic studies evaluating police enforcement strategies in hot spot areas
Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder through Problem-Solving Partnerships
Contains information and insights into the problem-solving approach
Analyzing Crime Displacement and Diffusion
Presents the basic steps in building a regional communications plan to improve interoperability and joint responses to emergencies
Enhancing the Problem Solving Capacity of Units
Offers several recommendations for consideration when developing a group of skilled problem-solving crime analysts
Implementing Responses to Problems
Deals with the process of implementing responses to problems in problem-oriented policing initiatives
Using Crime Prevention through Environmental Design in Problem Solving
Explains the basic principles of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) and outlines a process for identifying problems, evaluating the physical environment, and identifying strategies to remove/reduce crime
How To Correctly Collect and Analyze Racial Profiling Data: Your Reputation Depends on It
Helps law enforcement agencies collect and analyze racial profiling data
Using Analysis for Problem-Solving
Provides law enforcement practitioners with a resource for conducting problem analysis


Center for Problem-Oriented Policing
Nonprofit advancing the concept and practice of problem-oriented policing in open and democratic societies

Inter-University Consortium of Political and Social Research Summer Program in Quantitative Methods
A comprehensive, integrated program of studies in research design, statistics, data analysis, and spatial data analysis at the University of Michigan

International CPTED Association
International association supporting crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), an approach to crime that relies upon the ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts by affecting the built, social, and administrative environment

Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC)
Nonprofit that equips struggling communities with the capital, strategy, and know-how to become places where people can thrive

Police Society for Problem-Based Learning
Nonprofit created by law enforcement professionals for the purpose of improving the quality of training