Alphabetical Index

Title Funding Organization Subject PDF TXT HTML Abstract
"Designing Out" Gang Homicides and Street Assaults NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF TXT   National Institute of Justice (NIJ), November 1998. Describes the Los Angeles Police Department's successful "Operation Cul de Sac" program for reducing gang violence by blocking automobile access to certain streets. (NCJ 173398)
2005 National Gang Threat Assessment BJA Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), 2005. This report provides a national and regional picture of the threat posed by gangs to enable Federal, State, and local policymakers and law enforcement agency administrators to understand the dimensions of the national gang problem and assist them in formulating policy and allocating resources. Includes regional trends as well as sections for community response to gangs, and gangs' involvement with terrorist organizations. (NCJ 209594)
Addressing Community Gang Problems: A Practical Guide BJA Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF TXT   Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), May 1998. Prepared by the Police Executive Research Forum, this is a useful tool providing guidelines for agencies and community groups to develop individualized responses to local gang problems. Provides a foundation for understanding the diverse nature of gangs, the problems they pose, the harm they cause, and two analytical models for addressing gang-related problems.
Addressing School-Related Crime and Disorder COPS / Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Institute for Criminal Justice Ethics, September 2001. Under the COPS funded School-Based Partnerships grant program, law enforcement agencies partnered with schools to address local crime and disorder problems. Grantees utilized problem-solving techniques to better understand the causes of identified problems, apply analysis-driven responses, and evaluate their efforts.
Adolescent Homicides in Los Angeles: Are They Different From Other Homicides? Summary NIJ Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), April 2002. Summarizes the findings of an assessment of comparable samples of adolescent homicides and adult homicides in Los Angeles, concluding that gang factors loom large in the distinction between adolescent and other homicides. (NCJ 193811)
Alcohol and Violence in the Lives of Gang Members NIAAA Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF   HTML National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), 2001. This study examines the link between gang culture and alcohol use.
Assessment of Multi-Agent Approach to Drug Involved Gang Members NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), November 2000. This research assesses the efficacy of a multi-agency project charged with reducing gang crime, specifically drug offenses. (NCJ 185252)
Benefits and Consequences of Police Crackdowns COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006. This response guide deals with police crackdowns, a response commonly used to address crime and disorder problems. Crackdowns involve high police visibility and numerous arrests. They may use undercover or plainclothes officers working with uniformed police, and may involve other official actions in addition to arrests. This guide provides the reader with on overview of the types of crackdowns, how crackdowns work to reduce crime, and how law enforcement can use crackdowns to address specific problems, such as robbery, burglary, gun-related crime, traffic problems, drug problems and street prostitution.
Best Practices to Address Community Gang Problems- OJJDP’s Comprehensive Gang Model IIR Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR), May 2009. In 1987, OJJDP began supporting a project to design a comprehensive approach to reduce and prevent youth gang violence. This project resulted in the development of the Spergel Model of Gang Intervention and Suppression, later renamed the OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model. The OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model includes five strategies for dealing with gang-involved youth and their families. The five strategies are: (1) community mobilization, (2) social intervention, (3) opportunities provision, (4) suppression, and (5) organizational change and development.
Best Practices To Address Community Gang Problems: OJJDP's Comprehensive Gang Model OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2008. Provides guidance for communities that are considering how best to address a youth gang problem that already exists or threatens to become a reality. The guidance is based on the implementation of the Comprehensive Gang Model (Model), which was developed by Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The Report also describes the research that produced the Model, notes essential findings from evaluations of several programs demonstrating the Model in a variety of environments, and outlines “best practices” obtained from practitioners with years of experience in planning, implementing, and overseeing variations of the Model in their communities.
Boston's Operation Night Light: New Roles, New Rules FBI Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), August 1998. This Law Enforcement Bulletin discusses probation and police officers work together in Boston to ensure that high-risk offenders comply with the terms of their probation.
Bullying in Schools COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2009. There is always concern about school violence, and police have assumed greater responsibility for helping school officials ensure students’ safety. As pressure increases to place officers in schools, police agencies must decide how best to contribute to student safety. This guide provides police with information about the causes and extent of bullying in schools and recommendations for developing effective approaches and practices that contribute to student safety.
Bureau of Justice Assistance Grantee Resources at a Glance BJA Related Resources     HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), n.d. This section of the BJA website provides links to standard forms, the OJP Financial Guide, OMB Circulars, Program Manager Contact List, and BJA Program Guidelines.
Can Civil Gang Injunctions Change Communities? A Community Assessment of the Impact of Civil Gang Injunctions NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), April 2004. This study evaluates the community impact of a locally popular gang intervention strategy, the Civil Gang Injunction, on neighborhood residents. Researchers predicted immediate and long-term effects on residents’ perceptions and experience of crime, gang activity and neighborhood quality. The study results offer guidance for program development for practitioners contemplating use of this strategy.
Causes and Correlates of Delinquency Program OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 1999. The purpose of this project is to determine how youth delinquency problems develop within the context of their community, family, and peers.
Checkpoints FBI Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), March 1998. This Law Enforcement Bulletin discusses how police departments should consider fourth amendment implications of limiting access to high-crime areas.
Combating Fear and Restoring Safety in Schools BJA Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), April 1998. This bulletin examines the climate of violence that threatens our schools and describes steps that concerned citizens are taking to restore security and calm. (NCJ 175561)
Co-Occurrence of Substance Use Behaviors in Youth OJJDP Related Resources PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), November 2008. The main finding is that the occurrence of one substance-use behavior made other substance-use behaviors more likely; for example, 9 percent of all youth ages 12-17 reported marijuana use, and 8 percent said they had sold drugs. Among youth who reported drinking alcohol (23 percent of all youth ages 12-17), the level of marijuana use was 32 percent, and the level of drug selling was 23 percent. In contrast, among youth ages 12-17 who did not report recent alcohol use, the level of marijuana use was 2 percent, and the level of drug selling was 3 percent. Of the youth who reported marijuana use, 81 percent also reported they drank alcohol, and 45 percent reported having sold drugs. Of the youth who reported selling drugs, 68 percent indicated they drank alcohol, and 54 percent reported marijuana use. In contrast, among youth who reported having sold drugs, 19 percent drank alcohol, and 6 percent used marijuana. Among those who sold drugs, both White and Hispanic youth were more likely than African-Americans to also report alcohol use; White youth who sold drugs were also more likely than African-Americans who sold drugs to report using marijuana. Generally, the levels of reported substance use steadily increased with age. Across age groups, there was a substantial overlap of drinking alcohol, using marijuana, and selling drugs. The NLSY97 involved self-reports from a nationally representative sample of youth ages 12-17. The survey asked about drinking alcohol and using marijuana in the previous 30 days, and ever selling marijuana, hashish, or other hard drugs. 4 tables and 7 figures. (NCJ 219239)
Creative Partnerships: Supporting Youth, Building Communities COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), January 2005. This COPS Innovations piece highlights community policing approaches to developing partnerships with youth. Three youth-focused programs funded by the COPS Office serve as examples of partnerships that law enforcement, schools, and community organizations can form to address issues of juvenile crime and victimization.
Crime Mapping News, Volume 6 Issue 3, Summer 2004 COPS / Police Foundation COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, January 2005. The topic of this issue of Crime Mapping News is about the use of crime mapping and crime analysis to address gang-related activity in diverse environments. The first article is about important factors to consider when creating gang maps for analysis. The second article discusses the use of mapping in analyzing a specific gang whose activity and culture have spread nationwide. The third article describes an intelligence process used in combination with crime mapping to combat both gang activity and networking among gang members inside and outside of a correctional institution in the eastern United States
Criminal Behavior of Gang Members and At-Risk Youths NIJ Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), March 1998. This bulletin focuses on the differences between the criminal behaviors of non-gang at-risk youth and gang-affiliated youth. This study concurs with others in its finding that youth gang affiliation increases frequency and violent nature of criminal behavior.
Cruising COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), January 2005. Cruising is a pastime largely confined to downtown areas, often referred to as "unnecessary repetitive driving." This guide provides a general discussion of the problem of cruising and reviews the factors that contribute to it. The guide also identifies questions law enforcement should ask when dealing with a cruising problem, proposes numerous responses to the problem, and identifies ways to measure the effectiveness of responses to the problem.
Disorderly Youth in Public Places COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2006. Disorderly youth in public places constitute one of the most common problems facing many police agencies. This problem-oriented guide for police provides a general discussion of the problem of disorderly youth in public places and reviews the factors that contribute to it. The guide also identifies questions to ask when dealing with a disorderly youth problem, proposes numerous responses to the problem, and identifies ways to measure the effectiveness of responses to the problem.
Dreams, Gangs and Guns: The Interplay Between Adolescent Violence and Immigration NIJ / Vera Institute of Justice Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Vera Institute of Justice, April 2002. The results of this study is the conclusion of ethnographic research of a neighborhood in NYC which showed that the generation gap between immigrant children and their parents caused them to rely on violent peer groups for protection.
Drive-By Shootings COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems / Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2007. Drive-by shootings are but one aspect of the larger set of problems related to gang and gun violence. This guide addresses the particular harms drive-by shootings cause by describing the problem of drive-by shootings and reviewing factors that increase its risks. It then identifies a series of questions to help law enforcement analyze their local drive-by shootings problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.
Drug Dealing in Open-Air Markets COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006. Open-air markets represent the lowest level of the drug distribution network. Low-level markets need to be tackled effectively to reduce the harms that illicit drug use can inflict on the local community. This guide describes the problem and reviews the factors that increase the risks of drug dealing in open-air markets. The guide then identifies a series of questions that might assist agencies in analyzing their local problem and reviews responses to the problem and what is known about these from evaluative research and police practice.
Drug Dealing in Privately Owned Apartment Complexes COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006. This problem-oriented guide for police focuses on drug dealing in privately owned apartment complexes. It clearly distinguishes between open- and closed-drug markets, provides information on what is known about each market type, and offers questions to ask when analyzing each market. It also proposes various responses designed to closed-drug markets and provides a full range of problem-specific measures to determine the effectiveness of those responses.
Early Precursors of Gang Membership: A Study of Seattle Youth OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity / Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 2001. The Seattle Social Development Project is a longitudinal study of youth living in high-crime neighborhoods and the predictors that lead to participation in gangs. (NCJ 190106)
Effect of Juvenile Justice System Processing on Subsequent Delinquent and Criminal Behavior: A Cross-National Study NIJ Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), October 2003. This study examined similarities and differences in juvenile justice systems at two sites in different countries (Denver, Colorado and Bremen, Germany) to determine the effects of distinct features of these systems on subsequent delinquency. In this way, the study might provide information about successful juvenile justice system practices. The project involved samples of high-risk subjects at the two sites.
Employment and Training for Court-Involved Youth: An Overview OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 1999. This bulletin provides an overview of the work of the Task Force on Employment and Training for Court-Involved Youth and describes promising programs: early intervention, residential, and aftercare.
Establishment of a Police Gang Unit: An Examination of Rational and Institutional Considerations NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), December 2000. This study uses a multidimensional method to ascertain the factors that shaped their decisions about a community's gang problem. (NCJ 182725)
Evaluating G.R.E.A.T.: A School-Based Gang Prevention Program NIJ Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), June 2004. The results of a 5-year study of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program reveal that the program has modest positive effects on adolescent attitudes and delinquency risk factors but no effects on their involvement in gangs and actual delinquent behaviors. (NCJ 198604)
Evaluation of CeaseFire-Chicago NIJ / Northwestern University Statistics and Research on Gangs     HTML National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Northwestern University, May 2008. findings of an evaluation of CeaseFire, a Chicagobased violence prevention program that was active in numerous sites in Illinois. The program is administered by the Chicago Project for Violence Prevention (CPVP), which is located at the University of Illinois’ School of Public Health. The evaluation focused on program development and implementation, and on its impact on clients and the community. It was conducted independently by a team from Northwestern University’s Institute for Policy Research. The evaluation was funded by the National Institute of Justice.
Evaluation of the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP) NIJ / OJJDP / School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago, October 2002. The OJJDP model involved multiple agencies interactively addressing individual youth, family members, and gang peers. The five core model strategies were community mobilization, social intervention, provision of social opportunities, suppression/social control, and organizational change and development. In an effort to implement this model under an OJJDP grant, the Mesa Police Department (MPD), the lead agency, collaborated with the Maricopa Juvenile and Adult Probation Departments, the Mesa School District, and United Way social agencies in the development of a 5-year gang prevention and suppression project entitled the Mesa Gang Intervention Program (MGIP). A case-management approach that involved a team of gang police, probation officers, case managers, and outreach youth workers emphasized social-intervention services as well as controls for 258 juveniles, primarily male Latinos between the ages of 12 and 20. Most were gang members on probation who were nonviolent offenders. In a multivariate, statistically controlled comparison of these youth with 96 comparison youth (who received no program services) from 3 comparison gang-problem areas, the program youth had arrest levels 18-percent lower than the comparison youth over a 4-year period. The targeted program neighborhoods also experienced a 10.4-percent greater reduction in selected juvenile-type crimes compared with an average of such crimes in the three comparison neighborhoods. Community/institutional collaboration that produced a broad range of program effects was identified as the primary factor in the project's success. Extensive tables and figures, 44 references, and appended data on police arrest charges, self-report offenses, a glossary of services/worker contacts, and the S/W Gang Involvement Scale.
Evaluation of the Riverside Comprehensive Community-Wide Approach to Gang Prevention, Intervention and Suppression NIJ / OJJDP / School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago, October 2003. The OJJDP model involved multiple agencies interactively addressing individual youth, family members, and gang peers. The five core model strategies were community mobilization, social intervention, provision of social opportunities, suppression/social control, and organizational change and development. The Riverside project, which was established in 1995 as a test of the OJJDP model, changed its name to BRIDGE (Building Resources for the Intervention and Deterrence of Gang Engagement) in 1999. Its 5-year (1995-2000) period of operations focused on two areas of the city with high rates of gang crime, with another gang-crime community selected as a comparison area. The program, established as a pilot effort, initially targeted gang-involved youth 12 to 21 years old who were on probation and involved in violent gang activity. One of the strongest components of the project was the employment-training and participation program of the Riverside Department of Human Resources. Also, two Riverside Police Department lieutenants assigned to the project had critical influence in community mobilization of agencies, program innovation, and administration. The evaluation involved a quasi-experimental design and multiple sources of data on project activities and outcomes. Measured outcomes focused on arrests of program and comparison youth. Program youth were three times as successful in the odds ratio of success to failure in reducing arrests for serious violence; they also had a lower ratio of failure to success for repeat drug arrests. Apparently the project did not reduce youth's membership and involvement in gangs relative to that of comparison youth during the project period. Extensive tables and figures and 80 references.
Evaluation of the San Antonio Comprehensive Community-Wide Approach to Gang Prevention, Intervention and Suppression Program OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), May 2005. The OJJDP model involved multiple agencies interactively addressing individual youth, family members, and gang peers. The five core model strategies were community mobilization, social intervention, provision of social opportunities, suppression/social control, and organizational change and development. The San Antonio Police Department (SAPD) received an OJJDP grant for a project called the Gang Rehabilitation, Assessment, and Service Program (GRAASP). A steering committee was developed to focus on mobilizing local neighborhood organizations; however, conflict between the SAPD and local neighborhood organizations emerged over the failure of the SAPD to allocate resources for community health and social services and recreational opportunities for the general youth population. Consequently, representatives of the justice system had little constructive collaboration with local agencies and grassroots organizations. GRAASP became essentially an outreach, social-service support program to gang-involved youth referred to outreach youth workers and case managers by juvenile probation and parole officers. There was no team structure or approach that incorporated practitioners from various organizations/agencies as key members of an effective steering committee. The evaluation matched a sample of 110 program youth with a sample of 120 comparison youth who received no project services. There was no evidence that program youth reduced their involvement with the gangs of which they were members; slightly more program youth became gang members. There was no substantial evidence that the GRAASP Project had a differential effect in reducing the level of gang crime at the individual, gang, or community levels. Extensive tables and figures and 62 references.
Evaluation of the Tucson Comprehensive Community-Wide Approach to Gang Prevention, Intervention and Suppression Program NIJ / OJJDP / School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), School of Social Service Administration, The University of Chicago, September 2004. The OJJDP model involved multiple agencies interactively addressing individual youth, family members, and gang peers. The five core model strategies were community mobilization, social intervention, provision of social opportunities, suppression/social control, and organizational change and development. The Our Town Family Center in Tucson received an OJJDP grant to test this model under a project entitled the Las Vistas/Pueblo Gardens Gang Project. The grant extended from 1996 through 1999. Comparison neighborhoods similar to the project neighborhoods were selected for the purposes of the project evaluation. The targeted areas had an increasing concentration of low-income Hispanic families and a growing youth population, placing them at high risk for an increasing crime rate and gang problems. The project attempted to use an existing coalition of agencies as the project's Steering Committee, but the effort failed, as the project involved only a limited number of social agencies, schools, and community groups, which met sporadically to provide token support and receive information about the project's progress. The program consisted primarily of services to at-risk youth by case managers and outreach youth workers, with an emphasis on early-intervention services for younger juveniles. The evaluation used a series of multivariate analyses to determine any significant differences between project and control areas in total arrests, serious violence arrests, total violence arrests, drug arrests, property arrests, and other minor arrests. The evaluation concluded that project efforts were not sufficient to modify arrest patterns at the individual or community levels. Extensive tables and figures and 60 references.
Female Gang Involvement in a Midwestern City: Correlates, Nature and Meanings NIJ Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), December 1999. A comparative survey conducted in Columbus, Ohio of young girls who are gang members and those who are not. Correlates gang involvement among girls, the life contexts shaping their participation, the meanings they attribute to it, and the structures and activities of the gangs and the girls' roles in them. (NCJ 179979)
Female Gangs: A Focus on Research OJJDP Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2001. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The article summarizes past and present research into female gangs and tracks their rise in number and the increased public recognition of female gang involvement as a significant social problem. (NCJ 186159)
Fighting Urban Crime: The Evolution of Federal-Local Collaboration NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF TXT   National Institute of Justice (NIJ), December 2003. This document examines how federal collaboration with local law enforcement authorities has evolved during 20 years of joint crime fighting against drugs, illegal weapons, and gangs. This study also examined particular collaborations in three cities: San Diego (California), Detroit (Michigan), and Memphis (Tennessee). (NCJ 197040)
Gang Activity in Orange County, California: Final Report to the National Institute of Justice OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), February 2000. Report on a study conducted by the University of California, Irvine, at the request of the Orange County Chiefs' and Sheriff's Association (OCCSA) to evaluate and monitor the effectiveness of OCCSA's community-based, multi-agency efforts to address gang violence and to help develop strategies to prevent and control illegal gang activity. Also evaluated was the OCCSA's Gang Incident Tracking System. (NCJ 181424)
Gang and Drug-Related Homicide: Baltimore's Successful Enforcement Strategy BJA Criminal Behavior of Gangs     HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), July 2003. This bulletin examines the phenomenon of violent inner-city gangs and introduces an investigative approach to combating these gangs in Baltimore, Maryland. (NCJ 201509)
Gang Members on the Move OJJDP Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), October 1998. This report focuses on gang migration and proliferation and how these two phenomena may affect each other. (NCJ 171153)
Gang Membership, Delinquent Peers, and Delinquent Behavior OJJDP Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), October 1998. This bulletin covers such topics as gang migration, female involvement in gangs, and the response/needs of communities who must deal with gang activity. (NCJ 171119)
Gang Reference Card for Parents (English) COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF   HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), October 2005. This quick and easy reference guide provides common warning signs of gang involvement. Parents are encouraged to familiarize themselves with local gangs symbols, seek help early, and consider contacting school officials, local law enforcement, faith leaders, and community organizations for additional assistance. The Gang Reference Card for Parents is available in English, Spanish, Hmong, and Vietnamese.
Gang Reference Card for Parents (Spanish) COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF   HTML  
Gang Reference Card for Parents (Hmong) COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF   HTML  
Gang Reference Card for Parents (Vietnamese) COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF   HTML  
Gang Resistance and Education Training Program (G.R.E.A.T) BJA Related Resources     HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), n.d. The G.R.E.A.T. Program is a school-based, law enforcement officer-instructed classroom curriculum. The program's primary objective is prevention and is intended as an immunization against delinquency, youth violence, and gang membership.
Gang Structures, Crime Patterns, and Police Responses NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity / Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), June 2001. This report provides data on how street gang crime patterns related to common patterns of street gang structure provide focused, data-based guidelines for gang intervention and control. (NCJ 188511)
Gang Structures, Crime Patterns, and Police Responses: A Summary Report NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity / Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), June 2001. Provides data on how street gang crime patterns related to common patterns of street gang structure provide focused, data-based guidelines for gang intervention and control. (NCJ 188510)
Gangs in Middle America: Are They a Threat? FBI Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF   HTML Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), December 2001. This article in the FBI's Law Enforcement Bulletin examines the history of gangs in the Midwest and their threat. The article also covers the topic of gang migration.
Gangs in Rural America, Final Report NIJ Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), September 2001. Using the National Youth Gang Surveys (NYGS), this study has two components. First, the NYGS data were merged with other county level data to create a unique data set for considering the relationship between reports of gang presence and county level social, economic, and demographic characteristics. Second, the study used interviews with agencies in rural counties that reported gang presence, the nature of gang problems, and effective responses to rural gangs. (NCJ 190228)
Graffiti COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems / Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), June 2009. This problem-oriented guide for police addresses effective responses to the problem of graffiti – the wide range of markings, etchings, and paintings that deface public or private property. In recent decades, graffiti has become an extensive problem, spreading from the largest cities to other locales. This guide provides law enforcement with a series of questions to consider when analyzing their local graffiti problem and reviews responses to the problem based on evaluative research and police practice.
Guide for Implementing the Balanced and Restorative Justice Model OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 1998. This document will assist juvenile justice professionals in implementing this approach to juvenile justice through its three components: accountability, competency development, and community safety. (NCJ 167887)
Gun Use by Male Juveniles: Research and Prevention OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), July 2001. This bulletin draws on data from OJJDP's Rochester Youth Development Study to examine patterns of gun ownership and gun carrying among adolescents. Also addresses the interrelationship between gangs and guns and describes efforts to reduce the illegal carrying of guns by youth. (NCJ 188992)
Gun Violence Among Serious Young Offenders COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), May 2007. While gun violence among young offenders seems to pervade our society, it is remarkably clustered among high-risk people, in high-risk places, at high-risk times. This concentration of violence provides an important opportunity for police to strategically address a seemingly intractable problem. This guide identifies a series of questions to help law enforcement analyze their local problem and reviews responses to the problem and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.
Highlights of the 1999 National Youth Gang Survey OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), November 2000. This fifth annual gang survey conducted by the National Youth Gang Center indicates that 3,911 jurisdictions in the Untied States experienced gang activity in 1999, a 19 percent decline from the high of 4,824 in 1996. (NCJ 185315)
Highlights of the 2000 National Youth Gang Survey OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), February 2002. This report summarizes the methodology and findings of the 2000 National Youth Gang Survey, which solicited information on youth gangs from 1,216 police departments serving all larger cities, 661 suburban county police and sheriff's departments, a randomly selected sample of 398 police departments serving cities with populations between 2,500 and 24,999, and a randomly selected sample of rural county police and sheriff's departments. (NCJ 193445)
Highlights of the 2001 National Youth Gang Survey OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 2003. This seventh annual survey conducted by the National Youth Gang Center showed that an estimated 3,000 jurisdictions across the United States experienced gang activity in 2001. (NCJ 200139)
Highlights of the 2002 National Youth Gang Survey OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 2004. This is the eighth annual survey conducted by the National Youth Gang Center. The report provides preliminary evidence that the overall number of jurisdictions experiencing gang problems in a given year may be stabilizing. (NCJ 204957)
Highlights of the 2002-2003 National Youth Gang Surveys OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2005. This report presents highlights of the 2002-2003 National Youth Gang Surveys, which solicited information from police departments on gangs in their jurisdictions. Of the 2,405 law enforcement agencies that received questionnaires, 95 percent responded to the 2002 and/or 2003 survey (1,524 responded in both survey years; the remaining 5 percent did not respond in either survey year). (NCJ 210490)
Highlights of the 2004 National Youth Gang Survey OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 2006. This fact sheet presents the main findings from the 2004 National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS). The findings indicated that 29 percent of county and city law enforcement jurisdictions that were surveyed experienced youth gang problems during 2004. Breaking this figure down by type of area revealed that 82 percent of larger cities, 42 percent of suburban counties, 27 percent of smaller cities, and 14 percent of rural counties reported youth gang problems. (NCJ 214253)
Highlights of the 2006 National Youth Gang Survey OJJDP Related Resources PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), July 2008. Reports findings from the 2006 National Youth Gang Survey. Data on the number of gangs, gang members, and gang-related homicides in larger cities, suburban counties, smaller cities, and rural counties are provided to accurately reflect youth gang activity in the United States. Based on survey results, it is estimated that nearly 3,400 jurisdictions across the United States experienced gang activity in 2006.
Highlights of the 2007 National Youth Gang Survey NCJRS Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF   HTML National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), April 2009. Since 1995, the NYGC has conducted a systematic survey of law enforcement agencies across the United States regarding the presence and characteristics of local gang problems. The nationally representative sample was selected in 2002 and includes the following agencies: all police departments that serve cities with populations of 50,000 or more (n=624, larger cities); all suburban county police and sheriffs’ departments (n=739, suburban counties); a randomly selected sample of police departments that serve cities with populations between 2,500 and 49,999 (n=694, smaller cities); and a randomly selected sample of rural county police and sheriffs’ departments (n=492, rural counties). The findings show that in 2007 an estimated 3,550 jurisdictions served by city and county law enforcement agencies experienced gang problems and an estimated 788,000 gang members and 27,000 gangs were active in the United States. Other details regarding youth gangs are provided. Data collected using a survey defining youth gangs as “a group of youth or young adults in your jurisdiction that you or other responsible persons in your agency or community are willing to identify as a gang;” motorcycle gangs, hate or ideology groups, prison gangs, and exclusively adult gangs were excluded from the survey. Tables and figure (NCJ 225185)
Homicide in Los Angeles: An Analysis of the Differential Character of Adolescent and Other Homicides OJJDP Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2002. Describes a research project that placed emphasis on four dimensions of youth violence in the Los Angeles: patterns of gang participation, drug and alcohol involvement, weapons use, and differential patterns among ethnic minorities. (NCJ 193812)
How to Analyze and Battle Incidents of Graffiti: CgrAs - Citywide Graffiti Abatement System COPS / Police Foundation COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems / Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), Police Foundation, July 2004. This issue, the second of 2004, contains articles on the use of global positioning systems (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) in law enforcement. The first article in this issue is about the use of GPS and GIS in the state of North Carolina and focuses on truck crashes and commercial vehicle enforcement. The second article is about the use of GPS-enabled digital cameras to analyze gang-related graffiti incidents in Santa Monica, CA. Finally, the third article is a recap of the recent International Crime Mapping Research Conference that took place in March 2004 in Boston, MA.
Hybrid and Other Modern Gangs OJJDP Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 2001. This piece describes the nature of modern youth gangs, in particular, hybrid gangs which are characterized by mixed racial and ethnic participation within a single gang. (NCJ 189916)
Impact of Gangs on Communities NYGC Criminal Behavior of Gangs / Related Resources PDF     National Youth Gang Center (NYGC), August 2006. This bulletin considers the impact of gang-related criminal activity on communities. It examines the impact of youth gangs in more populous cities - those with populations over 50,000.
Jail Information Model COPS Related Resources PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), November 2006. The Jail Information Model is a new process designed to cultivate jail-based information about internal and external safety and security issues, and to disseminate it to the appropriate offices or agencies in order to solve or prevent crimes and improve public safety. This Jail Information Model encourages and promotes a paradigm shift from traditional corrections activities to proactive public safety capabilities. This shift helps to solve current crimes, prevent future crimes or reduce their impact, save lives and property in the jail and the community, and improve community quality of life. This report highlights the success and lessons learned in the three pilot sites used in this project.
Juvenile Runaways COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), March 2006. Police encounter juveniles for many reasons related to their running away from home. This guide begins by describing the problem of juvenile runaways and reviewing its risk factors. It then identifies a series of questions to help law enforcement analyze their local juvenile runaway problem. Finally, it reviews responses to the problem and what is known about them from evaluative research and police practice.
Mobilizing Communities to Address Gang Problems IIR Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML Institute for Intergovernmental Research (IIR), January 2009. A proven, effective set of prescribed steps for mobilizing communities to address gang problems does not exist. This review of the literature on community-mobilization initiatives was undertaken to identify potentially effective steps, with the aim of laying the groundwork for pilot-testing them. The review begins with a discussion of definitions pertaining to community mobilization, followed by an examination of the history of initiatives that have addressed gang problems. This is followed by a review of research on community-mobilization implementation in five gang program demonstration sites. This report concludes with suggested key elements of successful community mobilization.
Modern-Day Youth Gangs OJJDP Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2002. The article compares the characteristics of gangs and gang members in jurisdictions with later onset of gang problems with those of gangs and gang members with earlier onset of gang problems.
National Evaluation of the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) Program, Final Report OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), September 2002. A report on the multiyear, multifaceted evaluation of one school-based gang-prevention program, the Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program, in which uniformed law enforcement officers teach a 9-week curriculum to middle school students. (NCJ 196447)
National Gang Crime Research Center NGCRC Statistics and Research on Gangs     HTML National Gang Crime Research Center (NGCRC), n.d. The NGCRC conducts research on gangs and gang members, disseminates information through publications and reports, and provides training and consulting services.
National Gang Threat Assessment 2009 DEA / NDIC / DOJ / NGIC Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF   HTML Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC), U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC), February 2009. According to the 2009 National Gang Threat Assessment released by the National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) and the National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC), approximately one million gang members belonging to more than 20,000 gangs were criminally active in the U.S. as of September 2008. The assessment was developed through analysis of available federal, state, and local law enforcement information; 2008 NDIC National Drug Threat Survey (NDTS) data; and verified open source information.
National Institute of Justice 2002 Annual Report NIJ Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT   National Institute of Justice (NIJ), 2002. Highlights NIJ's research and development activities during fiscal year 2002 in such areas as terrorism, violence against women and family violence, science and technology, and community safety. Details NIJ's increased commitment to program evaluation and describes how new-look print and electronic products and electronic-based dissemination will make policy relevant research more readily available to policymakers and practitioners. Also contains financial and web data and lists of awards, conferences, and products. (NCJ 200338)
National Youth Gang Center NYGC Related Resources     HTML National Youth Gang Center (NYGC), n.d. The purpose of the NYGC is to assist policymakers, practitioners, and researchers in their efforts to reduce youth gang involvement and crime by contributing information, resources, practical tools, and expertise towards the development and implementation of effective gang prevention, intervention, and suppression strategies.
National Youth Gang Survey, 1999-2001 NIJ / NYGC Related Resources / Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), National Youth Gang Center (NYGC), July 2006. This report provides the results of the 1999, 2000, and 2001 National Youth Gang Survey as well as the preliminary results from the 2002 survey. Overall, the findings reveal the significant variability in the characteristics and behaviors of gangs across the Nation, indicating that communities should comprehensively assess their local gang problem before developing prevention programming. Communities are urged to adopt the Comprehensive Gang Prevention, Intervention, and Suppression Model, which identifies the most promising strategies for reducing gang problems. (NCJ 209392)
Office of Justice Programs (OJP) State Administering Agencies OJP Related Resources     HTML Office of Justice Programs (OJP), n.d. Many OJP grants are awarded directly to state governments, which then set priorities and allocate funds within that state. For more information on how a state intends to distribute formula grant funds, contact the state administering agency. In addition, information is available for the information technology point of contact in each state.
OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model: A Guide to Assessing Your Community's Youth Gang Problem OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), June 2002. This guide will assist policymakers, practitioners, and community leaders in assessing and understanding their youth gang problems and developing an integrated plan to reduce gang crime in their communities.
OJJDP Comprehensive Gang Model: Planning for Implementation OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), July 2002. Describes the model, and provides information on the data behind it, criteria for strategies to implement the model, developing an implementation plan, staffing, street outreach, evaluation, and lessons learned from five urban sites.
OJJDP News @ a Glance: New Program Supports Community Anti-gang Efforts OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), September 2003. The Gang Reduction Program (GRP), a priority of the OJJDP, is underway in four pilot sites and has a clear goal: reducing youth gang crime and violence in targeted neighborhoods by helping communities take an integrated approach to applying proven practices in primary and secondary prevention, intervention, suppression, and reentry. (NCJ 201826)
Parents’ Guide to Gangs 2006 OJJDP Related Resources PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), 2006. Behaviors associated with joining a gang, common gang identifiers, and what parents can do are the three issues targeted in this pocket guide for parents. Some of the behaviors associated with joining a gang include: negative changes in behavior, suspected drug use, unexplained cash or goods, and the presence of firearms. Common gang identifiers referenced include: gang-style clothing and dress, symbols and numbers, colors, sports items, graffiti, tattoos, hand signs, and gang-influenced music and movies. Research indicates that parents play a vital role in keeping young people out of gangs. Parents can protect their children from gang activity. However, parents often lack factual information about gangs. This pocket guide is designed to provide parents with essential information in order to recognize and prevent gang involvement. In addressing prevention efforts, parents are encouraged to talk to their children about gangs and how to avoid gangs, to talk to their children about ways to deal with pressure from friends, to set firm limits with their children and teens, and to plan family time.
Planning a Successful Crime Prevention Project OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 1998. The bulletin is a workbook designed to help youth counselors plan, select, design, and implement a successful crime-prevention project for a community using a five-step Success Cycle. (NCJ 177024)
Police Response to Gangs: A Multi-Site Study NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), April 2004. Prepared by Arizona State University West, this research report describes the assumptions, issues, problems, and events that have been characterizing, shaping, and defining police response to local gang problems in the United States, centering on Albuquerque, New Mexico; Inglewood, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Phoenix, Arizona. (NCJ 205003)
Policing by Injunction: Problem-Oriented Dimensions of Civil Gang Abatement in the State of California NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), November 2002. Civil gang abatement is promoted as a problem-oriented response to high-drug, high-crime, and high-disorder initiatives. This federally funded study explored the scope of flexibility, community involvement, and problem solving in the acquisition stage of the civil injunction process in the State of California, an effort by prosecutors to acquire a preliminary injunction against a gang to abate persistent public nuisance activity in neighborhoods. (NCJ 197138)
Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity / Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), September 2000. This publication offers a solid foundation on which to build a comprehensive strategy to prevent youth gang involvement, examining the youth gang problem within the larger context of juvenile violence. Describes key characteristics of youth gangs, and the risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal attributes, and peer group, school, and community factors. (NCJ 182210)
Preventing Violence the Problem-Solving Way OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 1999. This bulletin describes the specific interpersonal cognitive problem-solving skills that relate to high-risk behaviors and their use by "Raising a Thinking Child," a primary prevention program for children ages 4 to 7 and their parents. By teaching their children to think first and to think constructively, parents can contribute to preventing violence the problem-solving way. (NCJ 172847)
Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder through Problem-Solving Partnerships COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems / Related Resources PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), July 2006. This guidebook, part of the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police series, will help communities use the SARA model (scanning, analysis, response and assessment) for building problem-solving partnerships.
Project Safe Neighborhoods: A National Program to Reduce Gun Crime (Final Project Report) NCJRS Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), April 2009. A NIJ-funded evaluation of the effectiveness of this major multiyear, Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN) is a nationwide program aimed at reducing gun violence in the United States.
Promising Strategies to Reduce Gun Violence OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), February 1999. This publication is designed as a toolbox to provide law enforcement, state and local elected officials, prosecutors, judges, community organizations, and other policymakers with practical information about a range of strategies for reducing gun violence. (NCJ 173950)
Prosecuting Gang Cases: What Local Prosecutors Need to Know BJA Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), April 2004. This monograph guides prosecutors through pre-trial and trial issues involved in prosecuting gang cases. (NCJ 206322)
Reducing Gun Violence: Operation Ceasefire in Los Angeles NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity / Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), February 2005. This report profiles Operation Ceasefire in Los Angeles, including the problem targeted; the program designed to address it; the problems faced in designing, implementing, and evaluating it; and the strategies adopted in addressing obstacles encountered. (NCJ 192378)
Reducing Gun Violence: The Boston Gun Project's Operation Cease-fire NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), September 2001. As part of the NIJ's Reducing Gun Violence publication series, this report is a problem-oriented policing initiative aimed at taking on the serious problem of homicide victimization among youths in Boston. It details the problem, the program designed to address it, problems confronted in designing, implementing, and evaluating the effort, plus strategies in response to obstacles. (NCJ 188741)
Regional Community Policing Institutes (RCPIs) COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems     HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), n.d. Regional Community Policing Institutes (RCPIs), funded by the COPS Office, provide comprehensive and innovative community policing education, training and technical assistance to COPS grantees throughout the nation. Training is delivered using adult-learning principles via interactive classroom instruction, CD-ROMS, community forums, teleconferences and the Internet and strives to provide a forum in which law enforcement and community members can discuss sensitive issues.
Regional Information Sharing Systems (RISSINFO) BJA Related Resources     HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), n.d. The Regional Information Sharing Systems (RISS) Program is an innovative law enforcement program that receives federal funding to support regional law enforcement efforts to combat terrorist activity, illegal drug trafficking, organized criminal activity, criminal gangs, violent crime, and other regional criminal priorities and to promote officer safety. On national-scope issues, the six regional centers initiate joint, cross-center efforts, coordinating and cooperating as one body.
Regional Information Sharing Systems ATIX (RISS ATIX) BJA Statistics and Research on Gangs     HTML Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), n.d. RISS ATIX™ participants include executives and officials from governmental and nongovernmental entities. Participants are designated into a specific group based on their role regarding the prevention, response, mitigation, and recovery efforts of terrorism and disasters. Each group is referred to as an ATIX community. ATIX communities include local, county, state, tribal, and federal government; law enforcement; emergency management; disaster relief; utilities; and, among others, the chemical, transportation, and telecommunication industries.
Responding to Gangs: Evaluation and Research NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity / Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT HTML National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2002. A collection of papers representative of the National Institute of Justice's portfolio of gang-related research. Ten chapters present different aspects of gang problems and research. (NCJ 190351)
Specialized Gang Units: Form and Function in Community Policing NIJ Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity / Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), October 2004. This research examined whether community policing and specialized gang units are complementary or conflicting approaches. The research approach consisted of qualitative examination of police department procedures and practices, and extensive field observation of gang personnel. (NCJ 207204)
Strategies to Address Gang Crime: A Guidebook for Local Law Enforcement COPS Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2008. To assist law enforcement and parents in identifying and addressing gang crime, the COPS Office has developed a variety of tools and resources including Strategies to Address Gang Crime: A Guidebook for Local Law Enforcement. Author Scott H. Decker, PhD provides information about developing and enhancing local law enforcement responses to gangs in their jurisdictions. The focus of the guidebook is on the use of problem-solving strategies to help agencies select the interventions most appropriate for their jurisdictions. In particular, the guidebook describes the SARA model (Scanning, Analysis, Response and Assessment), a strategic problem-solving process with which local law enforcement is familiar and can apply to its local gang problem. This is the must-have resource to help law enforcement understanding the factors that contribute to their gang problem and select appropriate responses.
Street Gangs and Interventions: Innovative Problem Solving with Network Analysis COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), November 2005. This paper briefly reviews the range of prevention, intervention, suppression, and comprehensive strategies, providing examples of each type. It then offers a case study of problem analysis in Newark, New Jersey. The reader will learn the unique utility of network analysis in the resultant problem analysis and understand the important role of an academic research partner. Finally, the paper considers the importance of sustainability with regard to problem analysis.
The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970–98 OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), April 2001. Provides information on statistical trends in the development of youth gang problems during the last 3 decades of the 20th century.
The Stop Snitching Phenomenon: Breaking the Code of Silence COPS Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2009. The threatening nature of the stop snitching message intimidates witnesses and erodes trust between communities and police by undermining police efforts to involve communities in preventing and combating crime. This also threatens police agencies’ own ability to prevent and solve crime because it impedes investigations, arrests, and convictions, and could severely erode the criminal justice system. This report addresses the problem and includes case studies documenting successful law enforcement and community approaches that have been implemented.
The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence Connection OJJDP Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), January 1999. This bulletin describes the critical differences between drug gangs and street gangs and explores the connections between youth gangs and adult criminal organizations plus the role of firearms in gang violence. (NCJ 171152)
Using Analysis for Problem-Solving: A Guide Book for Law Enforcement COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems / Related Resources PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), August 2006. This guide provides law enforcement practitioners with a resource for conducting problem analysis. It summarizes many challenges of the analysis phase of the problem-solving process. This book builds on the foundation presented in Problem-Solving Tips: A Guide to Reducing Crime and Disorder Through Problem-Solving Partnerships, and complements the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police Series. The guide also identifies tools for analysis and proposes tips for effectively using each tool.
Vietnamese Youth Gang Involvement OJJDP Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF TXT   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), February 2000. This bulletin discusses the results of a study by the city of Westminster in Orange County, California that examined the factors related to gang involvement by Vietnamese American youth. (NCJ 181085)
Violence by Gang Members, 1993-2003 BJS Criminal Behavior of Gangs / Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT   Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), June 2005. This report provides estimates of the number and rate of violent crimes committed by offenders that victims perceived to be members of gangs based on the National Crime Victimization Survey data. It also presents information on demographic characteristics of the victims of violence by gang members such as race, age, and gender, and characteristics of the incident such as police notification and number of offenders. (NCJ 208875)
Violence by Teenage Girls: Trends and Context OJJDP Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF     Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), May 2008. Examines the involvement of girls in violent activity (including whether such activity has increased relative to the increase for boys) and the contexts in which girls engage in violent behavior. Increasing arrest rates of girls led the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to convene the Girls Study Group. The Girls Study Group examines strategies to reduce girls’ involvement in violence and delinquency. This OJJDP Bulletin assesses trends of juvenile arrest rates for violent crimes, focusing on simple and aggravated assault. (NCJ 218905)
Violent Crime Impact Teams (VCIT): Focus on Partnerships COPS Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), April 2006. This COPS Innovation document provides background information on the Violent Crime Impact Team initiative and highlights the importance of partnerships as an essential component of its success. Through informational interviews with ATF supervisors in 12 sites, the reader will learn how existing relationships with other agencies and communities were strengthened and new, solid relationships were formed.
Violent Neighborhoods, Violent Kids OJJDP Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2002. This bulletin reports the delinquent behavior of boys living in the three most violent neighborhoods in Washington DC and the community institution's involvement in their development. (NCJ 178248)
Witness Intimidation COPS COPS Toolkit for Addressing Specific Gang Problems / Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF TXT HTML Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), September 2006. Witness intimidation is but one aspect of the larger set of problems related to protecting crime victims and witnesses from future harms. This guide focuses on the issues and responses that are most relevant to police, although useful resources for prosecutors are highlighted where appropriate.
Youth Gang Bibliography NYGC Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF     National Youth Gang Center (NYGC), February 2001. A 110-page bibliography of gang literature that includes citations for over 2,000 books, journal articles, and manuscripts.
Youth Gang Drug Trafficking OJJDP Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), December 1999. This bulletin provides an analysis of extensive youth drug-trafficking data and identifies areas for further research. Also discusses the policy implications of these findings for communities struggling to curb the negative impact of youth gangs in their midst. (NCJ 178282)
Youth Gang Homicides in the 1990s OJJDP Criminal Behavior of Gangs PDF TXT   Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2001. This fact sheet presents the results of a study of youth gang homicides in American cities in the 1990's. (NCJ 186816)
Youth Gang Programs and Strategies OJJDP Law Enforcement Responses to Addressing Gang Activity PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), August 2000. This report draws on more than 50 years of gang program evaluations. It outlines programs and strategies that have been and are being used to break the lure and appeal of gangs and reduce gang crime and violence. (NCJ 171154)
Youth Gangs in Indian Country OJJDP Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), March 2004. This report presents data regarding the presence and effect of youth gang activity in Indian country and an overview of programmatic responses to the problem. (NCJ 202714)
Youth Gangs in Rural America NIJ Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF     National Institute of Justice (NIJ), July 2004. Even though gangs are seen, as shown through the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS), to still be heavily concentrated in medium and large cities, gang problems are occurring in communities of all sizes and locations. Adapted from the National Institute of Justice final report entitled, "Gangs in Rural America," this study merged NYGS data with economic, demographic, and other data concerning the same geographic areas, so the factors associated with the presence of rural youth gangs could be analyzed. The data was divided the nonmetropolitan jurisdictions into three categories: persistent gang problems (23 percent); persistent absence of gangs (57 percent); and transitory or temporary gang problems (20 percent). Of the nonmetropolitan agencies reporting gangs in 1997, the more rural the jurisdiction, the less likely they were to continue to report gangs in 2000. The finding that only 41 percent of the agencies reporting a gang in 1997 reported the presence of a gang in 2000 is substantially lower than would be expected if gangs were persistent in rural areas. Findings suggest that predictors of gang activity in a rural area include: (1) areas experiencing economic growth (2) the percentage of the county’s population that lived in an urban area; and (3) the percentage of county residents who worked outside of their home county. The differences between urban and rural gangs strongly suggest that the policies and practices aimed at suppressing urban gangs may not be the best approaches in nonurban/rural areas.
Youth Gangs in Schools OJJDP Gang Activity in Specific Populations PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), August 2000. This bulletin analyzes findings from the School Crime Supplements to the National Crime Victim Survey. Describes characteristics of gangs in schools and discusses contributory factors to gang prevalence in schools. Also reviews the impact on victimization of gang presence in schools. (NCJ 183015)
Youth Gangs: An Overview OJJDP Statistics and Research on Gangs PDF   HTML Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), August 1998. This OJJDP bulletin looks at the history of youth gangs and their demographic characteristics and assesses the scope of the youth gang problem, including gang problems in juvenile detention and correctional facilities. States that successful gang intervention and suppression must build on services already in place in our communities to develop a comprehensive approach that will enhance the capacity of the juvenile justice system. (NCJ 167249)